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Plan B für die Liebe ein Film von Alan Poul mit Jennifer Lopez, Alex O'Loughlin. Inhaltsangabe: Zoe (Jennifer Lopez), eine im Berufsleben erfolgreiche. Die Liebe in Zeiten der künstlichen Befruchtung. Jennifer Lopez in»Plan B für die Liebe«, einer Komödie, die zwischen kalkulierter. Filmkritik zu Plan B für die Liebe. In seiner ersten Kinoarbeit versucht sich Fernsehroutinier Alan Poul an einer romantischen Komödie ums. Wissenswertes. User folgen 1 Follower Lies die 4 Kritiken. So was wie Liebe. Verleiher Concorde Filmverleih Source. Regisseur: Jaak Kilmi. Weblink To prevent automated spam submissions leave this field. Concorde Filmverleih. Noureen DeWulf. Wohnung dortmund mieten ihre herzigen Zwillinge und den zugehörigen Kindsvater prominent. Bewertung: 2.

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The distinction between utterances that push forward the action and those that don't allows to interrelate global and local constraints within a narrative text.

All other utterances are only locally connected to their environment, i. This, admittedly, simplifies the picture, 4 The principle of chronological order, for example, was explicitly stated in ancient rhetoric, albeit negatively: the hysteron proteron, i.

This way of relating global and local features of text structure to each other is clearly a step forward, when compared to, for example, story grammars, in which the local organization is largely neglected, or to Markovian approaches, in which only anaphoric relations, topic continuity and similar features are considered.

Thus, literary texts, as a stylistic device, sometimes reverse the relative weight of communicative importance, which we tend to assign to both components: there is a plot line with a series of sub-events, but what is really interesting happens in the background.

An utterance belongs to the foreground, if and only if it belongs to the narrative skeleton. All other utterances belong to the background.

Hence, background utterances form a quite heterogenous class. There is a more serious problem, however: This definition of the foreground cannot be extended to other types of texts, either because they have no temporal structure at all such as opinions, arguments, picture descriptions, etc.

Let us illustrate this by three examples. Well, first I will finish high school. Actually, thats not so sure, 6 because what I would really like to do is to become a musician; but my father won't allow me to.

So, I will go to the university and study something, probably French. And then, I will become a teacher, although the chances are bad right now.

And then of course, I will marry and have children. I am very traditional here, and love babies. There is something else I definitely will do: travelling through East Asia, for at least a year.

Maybe I can do this between High School and University. I was there myself last week. Yeah, you go down here about three hundred meters, then turn left behind the church.

Then, after another three hundred meters, you will come to a square, a very beautiful square. You cross it, carry on and then turn right.

You really can't miss it. Then it is the second street to the left, and there you can see it. It is yellow, or yellowish. Both selection and arrangement of the landmarks follow certain principles, which we will not discuss here cf.

Klein In any event, the backbone is completed by additional information underlined in the text above.

Had the driving of L. On the other hand, Mrs. The propositions themselves are of somewhat different nature.

Some concern the matters of the case at issue and hence normally to some real happening in the past, which in turn may consist of a complex of subevents.

Others concern attitudes and evaluations of the people involved; these attitudes may also be relevant for the verdict was the behavior intentional or just careless?

Which motives are involved? Nevertheless, most utterances in an opinion can be easily assigned either for foreground or to background see Katzenberger for an analysis of expository texts.

Let us briefly sum up at this point. But this presupposition is not sufficient. Someone's childhood, for example, also consists of temporally ordered events and the corresponding feelings and experiences.

But a question such as What do you remember from your early childhood? Thus, Charles opened the door.

At the same time, the phone started ringing are clearly narrative clauses which belong to the narrative sequence; but the corresponding events do not follow each other, and hence, the utterance violates the Labovian criterion.

It is far from being trivial to adapt the definition accordingly, because a more liberal definition which would also admit simultaneous events immediately runs into trouble with typical background-foreground sequences such as We were sitting in the office.

The telephone started ringing. In other words: Two utterances which express totally or partly simultaneous events, may both belong to the foreground, or one may belong to the background, the other to the foreground.

They may also both belong to the background, obviously. These possibilities are regularly distinguished by different forms, such as different aspect marking, but this indicates the difference and can't be the base of the definition.

Similarly, a route direction and a sightseeing description of the same spatial area have different text structure, although they draw on the same stored spatial information: they foreground and background different components of the same GV.

But even if there is an explicit question, then it may be relatively unspecific, and the QUAESTIO at issue results both from what is explicitly asked, on the one hand, and additional contextual constraints, on the other.

The function of a question in relation to a text is in principle not different from the function of a normal question in relation of an appropriate answer on utterance level.

A sentence such as 1 Peter went to Berlin yesterday. After each of these questions, 1 decides on an alternative at issue the term alternative taken in a broad sense: it may comprise more than two candidates.

What is different, is the alternative which has to be, and actually is, decided on. The terms TOPIC and FOCUS, as used here, refer to components of the entire information expressed by some utterance, rather than to the words or constituents which express this information.

Obviously, the TOPIC expression in the answer is redundant here, and in fact, it could have been omitted. In 2 e , the alternative at issue is between several possible happenings at some relevant occasion6 and all we know about these happenings is that they are in the past due to the tense morpheme of happened.

This component of the TOPIC, namely being in the past, is expressed again in the answer, but there is no independent TOPIC expression in the answer, unless one counts the inflection of went as such.

We shall return to this problem in section 3. In all of these examples, the TOPIC of the utterance is explicitly raised by a general context, or its expression may be totally left to the utterance itself.

If there is a contextually given TOPIC, then these means must be used in accordance with this contextual requirement, of course; otherwise, the utterance is contextually inappropriate.

Each single referent is taken from the underlying GV, and the QUAESTIO imposes restrictions on the possible referents and their arrangements: it narrows down the set of candidates which are admissable for specification within an utterance, and it restricts the way in which this specification of referents may proceed from one utterance to the next.

For narrative texts, these conditions may be roughly stated as follows. The time interval of the first event is explicitly introduced unless contextually given ; all subsequent ones follow chronologically, i.

Thus, a question such as What happened? If your friend comes to your room, pale, trembling and covered with sweat, the question What happened?

Thus, the primary restriction on the events is the definite time interval, although other restrictions are, of course, not excluded.

Both FC and TC may be violated by an utterance. Let us consider some examples of such side structures.

An utterance or a clause may serve to specify a time interval in explicit terms, rather than have it simply given by TC.

Most often, subordinate temporal clauses serve exactly this function, and this is the reason why they contribute to the background: They answer the question When did hevent a happen?

Other utterances don't violate TC, but they do not specify an event, as required by FC. There may be some argument here as to what counts as a singular event; for example, an utterance such as The sky was all red is normally interpreted as describing a state; but it may be used to refer to an event, as in Suddenly, the sky was all red.

But neither ambiguities of this kind nor semantic problems of how to define events in contrast to states, processes, etc. Still other utterances may violate both conditions, for example generic statements inserted at some point in the narrative, such as Well, that's how life is or There is always someone who wants to object.

Q1, Q2, The full sentence Nous etions a letude quand le proviseur entra This is a special case, however, in that this whole sentence introduces the story.

Note that our formulation of TC is such that Nous etions a l'etude would not violate TC, since it refers to the first time interval.

What happened to you at ti? But in Peter rang. Then, he rang again, two subsequent events are described by the same information.

So far, we have dealt with the first two inadequacies of the foreground-background distinction, suggested a more general approach, which seems to overcome these insufficiencies, and illustrated it for narratives.

But they have consequences for the expression, too: They indirectly restrict the choice of linguistic devices.

The nature of these latter restrictions depends on the specific language and the linguistic means which it offers for expression.

We shall illustrate this again for narrative texts. In section 5 below, it will then be discussed how learners approach the particular system.

Consider another somewhat less straightforward example. Suppose a language has no syntactically determined constituent order but the constituent or constituents which corresponds to the TOPIC comes first, the one or ones which correspond to the FOCUS comes 8 There are cases, though, in which a negated verb can be interpreted to denote an event, in the sense of FC.

If Latin were such a language, then the answer to the question Quis cantat? Conditions such as FC and TC cannot outweigh obligatory syntactic rules, but they can use the options left by these rules.

Whatever survives this process of selection, the speaker must in any event transfer a complex set of information into a linear sequence of utterances linearization.

How straightforward this linearization is, depends on the nature of the information. In the case of narrative texts, the relevant units are sub-events of a total event, and those sub-events are ordered along the time axis.

Linearization is much more problematic when the underlying GV, as in the case of route directions, apartment descriptions, etc.

A convenient way to solve this problem is the introduction of an ancillary temporal structure. In route directions, this ancillary structure is an imaginary wandering Klein , that is, a sequence of possible actions of a participant for example, of the person who asks for route directions ; these actions can be chronologically ordered and thus constitute a projection principle which allows the speaker to solve the linearization problem.

This technique presupposes that such a temporalization makes sense. The use of an ancillary temporal structure is virtually impossible in the case of essentially logical texts, such as an argumentation or an opinion as it was discussed in 2.

There is no uniform principle of how linearization is achieved in these cases, although in practice, there are a number of guide-lines see for argumentation Klein , for linearization in general, Levelt How this is done in different types of texts, is a matter of empirical research.

Referential movement The point of a text is the fact that the entire amount of information to be expressed is distributed over a series of utterances, rather than being patched into a single one.

This distribution is not done at random, but is governed by several principles which impose a certain structure on the text. Let B be the utterance in question, A the preceding one; as a special case, A should also include the empty utterance, such that B is the first utterance of the text.

Then, the TOPIC condition TC states that, in the case of narratives, a B must include a reference to a time interval tj in the real time axis; b this time interval tj must be after the time interval ti referred to in A although not necessarily adjacent to that time interval ; c this time reference may be implicit; but if it is implicit, it must not be marked as contributing to the FOCUS of B.

A more interesting case are prayers or magic formula whose underlying organisational principles are largely unknown.

We simply do not know why, in a love magic, the utterances must be ordered in a certain way to achieve the intended effect.

Moreover, the general idea of information distribution over the utterances normally requires B to contain some new information with respect to A: B must achieve some progress, compared to the state reached after A.

Firstly, they prescribe or exclude specific contents in some domains of reference, for example temporal reference in this case; other domains of reference, such as reference to place or to persons involved are not constrained, although this may be different in other text types than narratives.

In what follows, we will first have a look at the various domains which may be afffected by these constraints section 3. Then the utterance 3 She drove against the signpost.

The speaker has selected particular bits of information among the many he could refer to in his utterance. The listener will know some but surely not all of bits of information which are not made explicit.

For example, he may know from previous utterances what the place of the whole event is and that she refers to an elderly lady; similarly, he may infer from the whole context that she was driving a limousine, rather than a bulldozer.

First, there is contextual information which is directly linked to contextdependent verbal elements in the utterance, such as deixis, anaphora, ellipsis.

The interpretation of an utterance such as Me, too is based on knowledge of the meaning of deictic words and the rules of ellipsis in English, on the one hand, and on access to the necessary contextual information, on the other roughly, the listener must be able to identify who is speaking, and must have heard the previous utterance.

In these cases, we will talk of structure-based or regular context-dependency. The integration of linguistic information proper and of what can be derived by structure-based context-dependency provides the listener with a first interpretation, which we will call proposition.

Therefore, inference is less accessible to linguistic analysis than structure-based contextdependency; but it is no less important for text organisation and more specifically, for referential movement.

Consider a sequence of two utterances such as 4 Yesterday, I went to Heidelberg. My parents-in-law celebrated their silver wedding.

The second utterance contains no spatial reference at all. Still, we tend to infer that this wedding party is in Heidelberg: the spatial reference, taken from the FOCUS of the previous utterance, is maintained.

This inference is not certain the second utterance could continue In what follows, however, we shall not be particularly concerned with those processes which lead from the proposition to the utterance interpretation since they are more on a cognitive than on a linguistic level.

Whenever necessary, we will briefly say by inference. So, we will be mainly concerned with the transition from proposition to proposition.

Consider, for example, the proposition which is expressed when 5 is uttered in some context: 5 Yesterday, the Hammelwades left for Heidelberg.

We have avoided this terminology, especially the term sentence meaning, since we also want to include the meaning of utterances such as Me, too or She him or Why four?

Not all utterances express specific events. They may also render specific states as Yesterday, the Hammelwades were in Heidelberg , property assignments The Hammelwades are sweet , generic or habitual events During the winter, the Hammelwades live in Heidelberg , and maybe others.

To account for this, we need two refinements. First, we will replace the referential domain activity by the more general predicate which will also include property assignments, states, processes etc.

Second, we shall assume that an utterance also contains a reference to a modality; roughly speaking, it is somehow related to a real, a fictitious, a hypothetical world.

Admittedly, this is simply a way to circumvent a whole range of complicated problems, but it will do for our present purposes.

This leaves us with five, rather than four, referential domains: 1. Rt: temporal intervals or times 2.

Re: places 3. Rp: participants 4. Ra: predicates of various types 5. Rm: modality real, fictitious etc.

An utterance integrates information from these domains into a proposition. Note, however, that not all domains must be represented in each utterance.

On the other hand, information from one domain may show up several times in either the same or different functions; cf. Moreover, reference to time, to place, to circumstances may be conflated in one concept, as in On many occasions, there was dancing, to mention but a few of the complications.

In what follows, we shall first sketch a sort of basic structure and then come back to some complications.

Traditionally, it is often assumed that reference to a participant P from Rp often encoded by the grammatical subject and reference to a predicate A from Ra often encoded by the grammatical predicate constitute something like the inner core of a proposition, which is then further characterized by a time T and a space L; the resulting structure, the outer core, is then related M to some real or fictitious world.

We will adopt here this conventional picture, arguable as it may be. A mathematical theorem, for example, does not have a time or a place to be referred to; so, its basic structure is reduced by at least two of the components in I.

This is not to be confused with a basic structure in which some domain is not explicitly referred to, although the Sachverhalt itself as such would allow such a reference.

Compare again the propositions expressed by the utterances It was raining and There was dancing. Note that I relates to the way in which the underlying proposition is organized, not to the way in which the utterance is constructed.

The way in which time, place, participant etc. It may also be that the expression which has this function is very complex and uses features from some other referential domain.

For example, reference to the participant may use spatial or temporal information, as in The man at the corner or Poets from the 19th century.

We will return to this point in a moment. A most elementary realisation of a basic structure like I would look like 6 There and then, she did such and such.

In this case, the linguistic meaning contributes hardly anything to expression of the proposition. This does not mean that the proposition itself is poor in content; rather, most of what the listener can know about it stems from structure-based context-dependency.

Normally, the linguistic contribution is richer, of course, and we shall return to this issue in section 3.

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Kinder können zum Muttertag mit ganz einfachen Dingen und ohne viel Geld auszugeben die Herzen ihrer Mamas erfreuen.

Manchmal ist allerdings ein bisschen Hilfe von Papa, Tanten oder Onkeln nötig. Wenn ein Erwachsener hilft dafür zu sorgen, dass Mama eine Weile aus dem Haus ist bleibt Zeit für Vorbereitungen wie zum Beispiel einen kleinen Kuchen zu backen und selbstgebastelte Karten oder Bilder zu malen.

Die meisten Kinder malen gern. Interessant kann es werden wenn zu einem bestimmten Thema gemalt wird. Ein Thema kann auf unterschiedliche Weise gewählt werden, entweder die Kinder schlagen selbst etwas vor oder es wird von Erwachsenen vorgegeben.

Beides kann zu schönen Ergebnissen führen, wenn Kinder selbst auswählen wird bereits hier die Kreativität angeregt und ein sehr persönliches Bild kann entstehen.

Das Ergebnis kann allerdings auch weit vom Thema Muttertag entfernt sein. Ein vorgegebenes Thema kann Kinder zu weiterführenden Gedankengängen anregen wenn es genug Spielraum für Kreativität lässt.

Zum Muttertag könnte man zum Beispiel fragen: Was mag Mami am liebsten? Worauf das Kind dies dann bezieht ist offen.

Viele gemalte Bilder müssen auch verstaut werden, ein selbst gebastalteter Ordner ist eine gute Idee.

Man sollte darauf achten, dass er zu den Standardformaten anderer Ordner passt. Eine Box im Karteikartenformat kann einfach mit kleinen Botschaften, Bildern oder Fotos bestückt und jedes Jahr zum Muttertag ergänzt werden.

So entsteht über die Jahre ein schönes Stück Erinnerung für die ganze Familie. Diese zehn Zitate verdeutlichen auf liebevolle oder unterhaltsame Weise die besten Seiten unserer Mütter.

Vielleicht inspirieren Sie ja auch dich zu einer ganz persönlichen Danksagung. An jedem zweiten Sonntag im Mai wird der Muttertag gefeiert.

Kinder überraschen ihre Mütter mit bunten Blumen, selbst gebackenem Kuchen oder liebevollen Kleinigkeiten. Doch woher kommt diese Tradition und wer hat den Muttertag bei uns so populär gemacht?

Liebe Mamas, nehmt euch Zeit für die Dinge, die im Alltag zu kurz kommen! Hier sind fünf Alternativen zum obligatorischen Familienausflug!

Bei der richtigen Auswahl kommt es vor allem darauf an, was Mama wirklich mag. Kenn das nicht, das der Mann der Frau da was schenkt?

Gut mag ne nette Aufmerksamkeit sein, da Deine Maus ja ncoh zu klein ist. Zum Frauentag bekomme ich auch etwas! Ich find es super lieb von ihm und ich habe mich gefreut!

Ich bin schon seine Frau, aber auch eine gute Mutter für sein Kind in seinen Augen und deshalb wollte er etwas schenken. Wieso ist dein Kind mit 18 Monaten zu klein zum Malen?

Es soll ja dabei kein Gemälde entstehen, aber malen kann mit Sicherheit schon ein Kleinkind. Natürlich "malt" sie.

Aber eben noch nicht so, dass es ein Bild werden kann. So richtig Ausdauer ist da auch nicht dahinter. Da wird ein Strich getätigt und schon ist sie wieder lieber in Action!

Ist dann auch einfallslos! Striche ergeben wohl kein Bild? Soll sie denn gleich anfangen, eine Wiese mit Haus, Baum und Pferden zu malen?

Bei uns ist im Moment ausschneiden und aufkleben der absolute Hit und so werden wir es auch machen.

Schön ein Bild zusammen basteln und dann Papa ein schönes Frühstück machen. Meinen Sohn hättest du bis vor kurzem damit jagen können und er ist Mein Mann aht mich wie jedes Wochenende ausschlafen lassen, mir Vergissmeinnicht und einen Herzballon umsonst vom Bäcker mitgebracht.

Ich hab mich gefreut. Ich werd mit Louis einen Hnadabdruck machen. Aber natürlich kaufe ich ih meine K'leinigkeit.

Das mach ich auch so mal. Vielleicht ein Gutschein für ein Kickerstrikot mit seinem Namen drauf.

Ich werde eine Tüte basteln, mein Sohn darf sie bestelmpeln und dann sammeln die Kinder kleine Schätze ein schöner Stein oder so , die sie papa in der Tüte schenken dürfen.

Hier geht es in die aktuelle Version dieser Seite. Nimm dort aktiv am Diskussionsgeschehen teil. Geschenkkorb Muttertag - Be happy Mama!

Oje, ich wachse! Kindermund bei Baumhaus. Ich möchte meiner Mutter auf diesem Weg einfach danke sagen, dass sie mich so toll bei meinem Sohn und auch sonst unterstüzt.

Mag sonst so Tage auch nicht. Ich werde beschenkt. Ich zünde eine Kerze an am Grab meiner Oma und meines Opas, die beiden haben mich geliebt bis zu ihrem Tod und ich habe überwiegend bei ihnen gelebt als Kind, weil die, die mich geboren hat, wollte mich nicht, hat mich verkauft, verrraten und gedemütigt wo sie nur konnte.

Ich kann meiner Mama das ganze Jahr zeigen wie lieb ich sie habe, da muss mir keiner einen Termin für geben.

Dann schick ihr doch was und sag ihr, das du die vermisst. Vielleicht vermisst sie dich auch und traut dich nur nicht den ersten Schritt zu machen.

Hier kannst Du Dich über die. Neurodermitis und Juckreiz. Ich habe jetzt gelesen, dass diese auch durch Kuhmilch. Liebe Ursula, mein Kind ist leider gegen Kuhmilch allergisch.

Ich habe nun gelesen, dass Stutenmilch ein sinnvoller Ersatz sein soll? Stimmt das. Hallo liebe Ursula, ich habe eine Frage zum Thema Nahrungsmittelallergie bei Kindern und hoffe, dass du mir helfen kannst.

Ich habe eine fünf Jahre. Ich habe da eine Frage und hoffe das sie mir vielleicht wieter. Vorhin sagt meine tochter: " Mama was unternehmen wir jetzt morgen an Muttertag?

Wie würdet euch euer Mann zum Muttertag beschenkt? Mir ist es passiert und da wir gerade einen Konflikt haben denke ich auch über diese Geste nach.

Hi zusammen, Schickt ihr eurer Mama Blumen oder ein Geschenk an Muttertag, wenn sie weiter weg wohnt, oder ruft ihr nur an und gratuliert?

Want to add to the discussion? Was schenkt ihr zum Muttertag? Ich finde, Muttertag ist eine Erfindung der Blumenläden und Geschenkeindustrie, mehr nicht.

Das ein praktisches Geschenk. Und du hast auch etwas davon Ich schenke meiner Mami zwei selbstgestaltete Schokoladen von Rittersport.

Ich hab nämlich ein altes Foto von meinem Bruder, von Papi und mir ausgegraben. Diese Art "Vatertag" ist scheints was typisch Deutsches.

Braucht man genauso wenig wie Muttertag. Meine Mutter bekommt von mir zum Geburtstag und Weihnachten zusammen immer einen Hotelgutschein.

Und das im Alter von 84 Jahren. Das unsichtbare Band zwischen unseren Müttern und uns wird schon manchmal arg strapaziert. Mal schauen was ich dieses Jahr finde Ich finde diese Schenkerei an Muttertag auch grauenhaft - GsD habe ich das eindrucksvoll und ehrlich an meinen Sohn vermitteln können.

Lieber mal so zwischendurch ein Anruf, eine Umarmung meine Mutter bekommt mal keinen dummen Spruch, wenn sie mir eine Geschichte zum Eine CD, die mich auf den Punkt zu Tränen gerührt hat und die heute mindestens so aktuell ist wie damals: Wer oder was hat meinen Kids vor vielen Jahren diese Eingebung verschafft?

Jeder Tag ist Muttertag. Oder sollte es sein! Denn die Rente reicht vorn wie hinten nicht. Eher "Wegen" als "Trotz". Meine Mama rufe ich wie jedes Jahr am Muttertag an.

Da freut sie sich. Eine CD, die mich auf den Punkt zu Tränen gerührt hat und die heute mindestens so aktuell ist wie damals: Das nenne ich mal cool.

Für mich ist wichtig ich kann meine Kinder noch so oft wie möglich sehen Ich hab meiner Mama immer eine KLeinigkeit geschenkt.

Mehr jibbet nit Und zwar habe ich hier ein Fotobuch erstellt. Habe gesehen da gibt es heute sogar nen Gutschein von 10 Euro falls jemand noch eine Idee braucht So und zusätzlich gibt es dann noch ihren Lieblingskuchen und zwar den Oreo Kuchen.

Das sollte dann genügen Welcher Anbieter ist da am besten? Müsste man doch eigentlich ohne Probleme bestellen können oder? Da trifft es sich dann ganz gut, dass nächstes Wochenende Muttertag ist meine schwiegermutter bekommt einen blumenstrauss weil sie die besonders liebt und sonst hat sie das ganze jahr unsere aufmerksamkeit Hi Labens!

Das waren noch Zeiten, als meine Mutter sagte, sie wolle nichts - nur artige Kinder. Meine Mama hat schon gern etwas Materielles an Muttertag.

Kurz und knapp halt. Ich war zu Tränen gerührt. Das ist schon viel, finde ich. Sammy und Lichtfeder: Danke, das ist lieb von euch.

Meine auch, auch wenn sie es liebevoll leugnet. Da brauch ich mal nicht am Herd stehen und werde eingeladen. Aber sie hat sich über den brief von mir sehr gefreut ich finde die Idee gut, würde mir als Mutter auch gefallen.

So und zusätzlich gibt es dann noch ihren Lieblingskuchen und zwar den Oreo Kuchen. Das sollte dann genügen. Welcher Anbieter ist da am besten?

Meine Mutter liebt gute Rotweine. Letzte Woche war ich mit der Uni auf einer Exkursion in der Wachau um uns Trockenmauern in Weingärten anzusehen und da hat uns der Winzer auf ein paar Gläschen Wein eingeladen.

Der Rotwein war einfach klasse und da musste ich sofort an meine Mutter denken und habe gleich ein paar Flaschen für sie mitgenommen.

Da trifft es sich dann ganz gut, dass nächstes Wochenende Muttertag ist. Hi Labens! Richte ihr skype nur ein. Meine Mutter in Canada hat noch die Anfänge davon mitgekriegt.

Inzwischen sehe ich die kleinen Nichten und Neffen drüben und die sehen mich. Das ist fast, als würde man zu Besuch hinreisen.

Wegen dem Zeitunterschied verabreden wir uns aber. Werde ihr wohl einen schönen Duft oder ihre Luxuslieblingstagescreme schenken, die sie sich selten selbst kauft.

Monatlich erzähle ich am Telefon das Neueste von uns und darüber freut sie sich auch wie eine Schneekönigin. Da wir alle drei täglich oft an den Kühlschrank gehen, habe ich jedesmal wieder eine Freude und die Jungs werden an ihr "Versprechen" erinnert.

Wenn die zwei mal ausgezogen sind, würde ich mir auch nix anderes wünschen, als auf dem Laufenden gehalten zu werden, wie es ihnen geht.

Meine Mama hat sich einen neuen Affenbrotbaum gewünscht Ihrer ist letztens eingegangen Eigentlich schenken wir uns zu solchen Anlässen nichts.

Es ist ne Erfindung der Blumenindustrie, der Meinung bin ich auch. Aber dieses Jahr kriegt sie mal was Wir schenken uns etwas, wenn es passt und wenn dann solche Tage anstehen, sehen wir das als Gag.

Ein Bsp: Ich bin die Grillerin in der Familie da lass ich auch niemand anderen ran! Also habe ich letztes Jahr zum Kindertag eine neue bekommen Es war ein Gag und alle haben gelacht und sich gefreut, das ist doch das Wichtigste!

Den Muttertag haben wir heute schon abgefrühstückt. Meine Schwester hat eine gusseiserne Gartenbank besorgt und auch gleich aufgebaut.

Sie will in Urlaub, am Sonntag kann sie nicht. Ich habe ihr für den Balkon ein paar hüsche Windrädchen gekauft, aus Plastik und Holz.

Die sollen nicht nur hübsch aussehen, sondern haben auch den Zweck, die Tauben zu verscheuchen, die eine Zeitlang auf unserem Balkon auftauchten und die Blumen anknabbern.

Richtig dreiste Viecher sind das! Ob die sich über die Windrädchen wohl kaputt lachen?! Meine Mutti und auch meine Schwiegermutti bekommen Blumen leider aufs Grab, was ich heute schon erledigt habe.

Leute Leute, ich hab den Tipp für den Muttertag. Trage dich in unseren kostenlosen Newsletter ein, er wird von über Aber sie hat sich über den brief von mir sehr gefreut.

So ein Brief ist etwas, was bleibt. Aber es geht natürlich auch günstiger : Kannst ja mal bei uns im Shop vorbei schauen! Das ist natürlich furchtbar nett, aber auch gähnend langweilig.

Blumenhändler freuen sich jährlich darüber, dass vielen Leuten doch nichts Besseres einfällt und erhöhen in der Woche vor dem Muttertag noch mal kräftig die Preise, damit sich das Event auch für sie lohnt.

Aus genau dem Grund habe ich schon vor Jahren entschieden, dass ich die Blumen meiner Mum lieber einem Monat vorher oder nachher mal mitbringe und mir für sie am Muttertag was anderes einfallen lasse; z.

Aber das habe ich eben alles schon gemacht. Was ich noch nie gemacht habe; sie gefragt, was sie sich zum Muttertag wünscht.

Das war der Knüller für dieses Jahr; ich erfülle meiner geliebten Mum einen Wunsch ihrer Wahl, egal was es ist, ich entführe sogar ihren Bügelkorb zur Erledigung, obwohl ich bügeln hasse.

Wenn sie es nur will, wäre ich zu allem bereit. Gesagt, getan, ich ruf sie an. Und was wünscht sie sich?

Blumenhändler steigern nicht die Preise, sondern auf der Versteigerung werden die Preise geboten, das geht nach Angebot und Nachfrage.

In jedes Fach passt beispielsweise ein Foto mit den lustigsten Motiven. Bei mir wäre da zum beispiel drin wie ich früher nach nem schoko-eis aussah ;.

Du könntest deiner Mutter zum Beispiel einen Mutstein schenken. Das ist ein kleiner Stein mit einer persönlichen Gravur.

Die gibt es um die 15 Euro im Internet und deine Mutter kann ihn immer bei sich tragen. Hast du irgendwann in die Tasche gegriffen und da war diese Muschel, eine schöne Erinnerung?

Was besonderes ist er erst, wenn du ihn, mit einem persönlichen Wort versehen verschenkst. Zum Beispiel, wenn du jemand oft allein lassen musst, deine Gedanken aber bei ihm sind.

Oder wenn jemand neue Wege geht und deine Unterstützung gut gebrauchen kann. Oder wenn jemand krank ist und Ermutigung benötigt.

Oder weil du möchtest, dass er an dich denkt, wenn er auf Reisen ist. Oder, oder, oder. Eine Fototasse oder ähnliches aus dem Fotoladen. Hat sie Hobbies?

Lade sie zum Eisessen ein. Mach für sie ein 3 Gängemenu. Schreibe ihr ein sinnvolles Gedicht, einen Brief, oder eine Zeitung, die genau an ihrem Geburtstag herausgegeben wurde findest du in Google.

Ich finde Gedichte schön.. Selbst geschrieben auf einer schönen Karte. Das kommt von Herzen und das ist doch, worum es am Muttertag geht.

Wenn man bei Google einfach "Muttertagsgedichte" eingibt, kommen mehrere Seiten, die schöne Gedichte anbieten.

Habe gerade die ersten Tipps in einer Illustrierten entdeckt. Wer hat eine nette Idee, die richtig gut angekommen ist? Ich gehe am Muttertag nicht im Grünen spazieren und auch nicht in ein Ausflugsrestaurant, weil ich den Anblick dieser Legionen von freundlich bemühten Middle Agers, paarweise, mit je einer taprigen alten Mutter, die ausgeführt wird, absolut nicht ertragen kann.

Die alten Mütter sehen oft auch ziemlich betreten aus, bemühen sich aber, Begeisterung zu zeigen. Hm, war die Frage jetzt auf ein "Geschenk" ausgerichtet oder auf eine Unternehmung?

Also ich werde einfach bei meiner Mutter vorbeifahren und Kaffee trinken. Dieses Jahr versuche ich es mal mit einem Gutschein von my-creme.

Ich verschenke gar nix. Finde Muttertag ebenso unnötig wie Valentinstag. Wenn ich meiner Mutter eine Freude machen möchte, dann mache ich das unabhängig von einem Tag, den mir irgendwer vorgibt.

Selbstgemachte Schokolade und Pralinen nach dem Geschmack meiner Mama. Kommt jedes Jahr immer wieder gut an. Auch bei meinen "verfressenen" Geschwistern die davon profitieren.

Ich als Mutter mag keine besonderen Geschenke. Mir reicht es, wenn meine Familie mich an diesem Tag etwas verwöhnt.

Wir sind mehrere Kinder und schenken unserer Mutter immer einen Tagesausflug, der auch Aktionen enthält, die mein Vater nicht mitmachen würde und die sie sich nicht gönnen würde.

Habe meiner Mutter in den letzten Jahren immer selbstgemalte Bilder oder andere Sachen aus meiner "Werkstatt" geschenkt.

Kommt super an, sie freut sich jedesmal wie ein Schnitzel ;-. Es gibt Onlinefotoshops, da geht das super und auch schnell und.

Man kann den Hintergrund farbig gestalten und wenn man will auch Text einfuegen. Sauna, Wellness, Ausflug, Kino, Theater.

Meist kriegt sie Bücher, manchmal gibt's einen Tagesausflug. Kuchen und Torten soll sie nicht mehr so in Mengen essen, da sie Diabetes und noch ein bisschen Übergewicht hat und ausserdem die bessere Bäckerin von uns zwei ist.

Zum Muttertag gibts natürlich auch einen Kuchen von mir aber backen tu ich ja eh viel und gerne, da ist das nicht wirklich was besonderes.

Dass ich unter dem Jahr auch für meine Mama da bin und schenke, das versteht sich von selbst. Das möchte ich gar nicht extra erwähnen.

Ihr helfen, den Rasen mähen oder Kuchen backen ist ganz klar. Schenke ihr doch eine Auszeit für den Tag. Habe oben etwas von Frühstück machen gelesen.

Finde ich gut. Wenn ihr mehr seid könnt ihr ja vielleicht auch einen kleinen Brunch bei ihr organisieren. Muttertag ist immer, wenn sie Zeit und Lust haben, mich zu besuchen, wenn wir zusammen essen gehen oder wenn ich für sie koche oder umgekehrt und wenn wir telefonieren und was zu lachen haben.

Nur das was wir an vielen Wochenenden sonst auch machen. Essen, Kaffeeklatsch, Spazieren gehen, lachen, gemeinsam spielen und das ihre Kinder und ev Schwiegersöhne auch mit am Tisch sitzen.

Mutti freut sich wenn ich mal vorbeikomme, muss am Sonntag auch noch Tante im Altersheim besuchen ,. Drum freue ich mich um so mehr, wenn meine Kinder und mein Mann mir einfach so mal ein Blümchen nach Hause bringen.

Also ich schenke sowohl mal was einfach so, als auch dann am Muttertag. Aber eben auch ohne Anlass. Diese jahr dachte ich an Schmuck, ein Kollgege bei der Arbeit meinte das man zum Muttertag aber keinen schmuck kauft weil es irgendwie unglück bringt.

Hab echt keinen Plan ob das stimmt, habt ihr schonmal was davon gehört? Ich habe meinem Sohn verboten.

Gottseidank haelt er sich daran! Then, however, the relation between expressions and features expressed becomes much less straightforward than in 5.

This has many consequences for referential movement, three of which will be discussed in the sequel. First, it is one word, in contrast to syntactically compound spatial expressions, such as at the castle, in front of the house or between here and there.

Second, it contains only spatial features, in contrast to for example a 21 verb such as to come, which contains spatial, but also temporal features.

Such a clustering of features also appears in syntactically compound expressions, and this fact often constitutes a problem for referential movement.

An expression such as at the castle is syntactically compound, but homogeneous: it refers to a place. This reference may fill the appropriate position of the basic structure.

In this combination, at the castle, while still being a reference to a place, cannot fill the place coordinate of a basic structure, and hence cannot be maintained as the place reference of some subsequent proposition, for example by the use of anaphoric there: 7 The man at the castle was better informed than our travel guide.

In this example, there is appropriate only if it is clear from some other contextual information that the locus of the whole action is at the castle, but not as direct anaphoric maintenance from the first of the two utterances.

It is not true, however, that anaphoric linkage could not cross the referential positions of the basic structure. Consider an example where a place reference functions as a part of the predicate reference, as in the compound predicate being at the castle: 8 We were at the castle.

Here, anaphoric linkage is clearly possible, or, to put it slightly differently, the place introduced in the first utterance, where it is part of the predicate, is accessible to anaphoric maintenance within the basic structure.

This is quite typical for compound predicates. It is difficult to say what is responsible for these differences in accessibility as exemplified by 7 and 8.

The type of compoundness is one factor, but clearly not the only one. Moreover, accessibility to anaphoric maintenance often correlates with accessibility to other semantic processes, such as the possibility of being marked as TOPIC or modifiability by an adverb, to which we will turn now.

Time and participant are the same, and the grammatical predicate refers to the same action; but in the second case, some of the semantic features implicitly contained in crowned him are singled out and referred to explicitly.

This singling out of two components makes them accessible to anaphoric processes. Thus, 10 but not 9 allows the continuation: 22 11 It looked splendid there.

Thus, it cannot be used to answer the question Where did Leo put the crown? Thirdly, when features are encapsulated in a single lexical item, they offer limited access to further modification.

Thus, the crowned from 9 implies a crown, as is evidenced by the possible continuation The crown was splendid with a definite article.

But this implicit crown cannot be further specified so long as it is only implicit. This is not to mean that no feature within crowned is accessible; adverbials, such as rapidly, may easily address temporal characteristics of the predicate.

There is a third, in a sense complementary, problem with maintaining reference. If several features are available for anaphoric maintenance, which among them are picked up and maintained by a specific anaphoric devices?

We will briefly discuss this bundling of features. An anaphoric term may pick out some referent in a selective way, such as there for place, they for the participant, etc.

But there are also anaphoric terms which bundle various types of information, for example this. Consider the following four possible continuations: 13 a We may do this, as well.

We thought they had already left last week. In all of these cases, this picks up a different bundle of features among those which were introduced before.

Thus, it is quite unselective with respect to referential movement: this maintains the central feature, or features, of a proposition, which are contained in the predicate, and an arbitrary share of peripheral features, namely all of those components of the basic structure which are not freshly specified.

A brief summary Before turning to learner varieties, it may be useful to sum up in brief what has been said in the preceding sections.

In the next section, we will exemplify and discuss some of the probems which a learner has to solve when acquiring the complex mapping characteristic of the language to be learned.

Narrating and describing in L2 In essence, what has been said far about the principles of text organisation applies to adult second language speakers much in the same way as for native speakers.

Confronted with a communicative task as telling a narrative, giving route directions or describing a picture, the L2 speaker must solve the same conceptual task in terms of selecting the relevant parts of her knowledge base, structuring, and linearising a complex body of information.

The constructive function of the QUAESTIO and the constraints implied for the production of the answer text can be taken as pragmatic knowledge which an adult speaker of any language has at her disposal and which is not tied to specific linguistic means.

Differences between the two groups of speakers, however, arise when it comes to the linguistic devices available to the speaker.

Here the L2 speaker can be far more restricted and she can even be forced to adjust her communicative intentions to her linguistic repertoire.

As the worst consequence this might result in the fact that in a conversation a question posed by the interlocutor cannot be answered at all.

In the given context we want to look at the relation between linguistic competence and complex text production for learners with very limited command of a second language.

How is it possible that these learners are able to communicate information about complex states of affairs in the form of narratives or descriptions?

More specifically, what is the role of the quaestio and its implications in the text production of L2 speakers and how is the selection of specific expressive devices guided by the structural properties of the texts?

In order to identify the function of the QUAESTIO constraints in text production we will look at learner texts of two different types: narratives and descriptions.

The data are selected from a larger corpus elicited from Turkish migrant workers in Germany. They had been living in Germany for several years and had acquired German without the support of classroom teaching.

The texts were recorded within the frame of an unguided conversation between the informant, a German interlocutor and in some cases also a Turkish bilingual student cf.

Stutterheim They are produced as answers to an information question rather than to entertain a hearer. In the analysis below we will first sketch the constraints set up by the quaestio for the different domains involved.

Then the text will be analysed with respect to the patterns of referential movement and the relation between explicit and implicit information components.

You are new one week 25 kann ich nicht I cannot 26 keine urlaub 25 no holiday 27 krankgeschrieben geht nicht sick leave not possible 28 und ich and I 29 naja gibse mir meine papiere alle alle okay give me my papers all all 30 und ich gehen kindergarten and I go nursery 31 und 2 tage das ist windpocken and 2 days this is chicken pocks The introductory question of the interlocutor points at a general problem: What happens when your child falls ill?

The speaker gives a brief general answer and then turns to narrating a personal experience to illustrate the situation The shift from a general statement to a narration becomes apparent through the introduction of a specific temporal interval by erstemal at first.

The constraints which can be taken as a scaffold for the construction of the text affect the following domains.

The speaker and her child function as topic elements, a specific time interval is introduced although not referentially fixed as the beginning of a sequence of temporally linked intervals, the predicate domain has to be filled by references to events, the validity status of main structure utterances is factual.

Utterances which form the structural backbone of the text will obey these constraints. Let us now look in detail at the construction of the text and the means used to convey the complex information structure.

The speaker begins with a scene setting passage in which she specifies that part of the question which refers to working conditions.

By the temporal adverbial erstemal at first she establishes a particular time interval which serves the function to delimit the proposition as individually located in time from the preceding hypothetical propositions.

Reference to the working place and the durative predicate arbeiten to work leads to a static interpretation.

Utterance 11 in itself is not clear as to its function within the narrative. However, followed by the temporal adverbial letztes Tage last day in 12 its function becomes apparent.

It serves as a temporal reference anchoring the beginning of the event chain. Given the telic predicate anrufen in combination with a specific time reference the utterance will be interpreted as referring to a singular event.

The event line is continued implicitly by an event of direct speech, furtheron in 21 and It is taken up in by a not explicitly introduced sequence of direct speech, continued in 28 and finally in 30 and The type of semantic relation between main and side structure varies and although there is no explicit information as to how a side structure utterance has to be integrated e.

Let us take 13 as an example. Since there is no evidence for integrating this utterance into the chain of the events, e. As has been described in several studies on narratives e.

Labov , Quasthoff direct speech is a frequent phenomenon in standard language, too. This function might also be involved for the L2-speaker, it seems to be more important, however, that a direct quotation reduces structural complexity at utterance level.

The perspective of the quoted person does not have to be anchored explicitly, all deictic parameters are fixed within a field of secondary deixis, as soon as the frame of quotation is established.

With respect to the global structure of the narrative text the passages of direct speech are implicitly integrated.

Although the situations referred to in the quotes cannot be located within the chain of events it is the act of speaking which is part of the story line.

Which devices does the speaker use to convey the information structure? As can be seen in the text, the speaker has acquired very little verbal and nominal morphology, formally inflected forms such as geht goes or kann can do not contrast with other inflected forms of the same verbs and therefore have to be analysed as rote forms and not as finite verbs.

The function of finiteness, lying in the modal and temporal anchoring of a propositional content, is taken over by the global frame values and lexical references.

Conjunctions and other function words are absent in the text. The linguistic system the speaker has at her disposal consists of a lexicon of content words with a few exceiptions and word order as grammatical device.

The speaker follows a strategy which allows him to convey macrostructural properties of the underlying information structure: Utterances are refrentially complete to varying degrees.

This is to say, even where the subject or the predicate could be inferred from the context the elements might be expressed for structural reasons.

In general we can say that main structure utterances are more explicit containing subject and predicate 14, 21, 22, 30 , whereas side structure utterances can be more reduced e.

This opposition between more or less reduced utterances with respect to the grammatically obligatory elements subject and predicate can also be observed in standard language texts cf.

The elliptic or reduced forms serve to signal dependency either of side structure material or within an hierarchically organised event structure.

The sequence of utterances produced by the speaker can be interpreted as narrative although central linguistic devices for conveying coherence relations are absent.

This is possible because of the scaffolding function of the globally established QUAESTIO parameters and because of the controlled integration of relevant presupposed knowledge.

Indepth analysis of a larger corpus cf. Stutterheim showed that this expression is used to serve different functions.

Mostly it can be found in relation to a focussed element, highlighting a specific piece of information. Temporal reference is not specified.

It is, however, clear that the events are located on the time axis before speech time. Linearisation of main structure events follows a temporal criterion.

The validity status of main structure utterances is factual, the predicates have to be of the event-type two state-predicates or bounded states.

In addition, a knowledge frame is activated which encompasses working conditions, in particular at hospitals.

As we can see in the data, the speaker bases the construction of her discourse on the basis that the aspects of the information structure mentioned above are part of common knowledge between speaker and hearer.

This information builds a contrast to the introductory statement of the notice explicitly marked by aber but , motivating the following story.

Here, again the rhetorical device of direct quotation allows the speaker to present causally interrelated facts and opinions, which otherwise would have to be expressed by subordination and unambiguous referential devices.

When we look at the relation between explicit and implicit pieces of information we get the following picture.

The speaker produces sequences of lexical items with hardly any explicit syntactic marking. At utterance level, the information which is carried by the finiteness of the predicate in the target language has to be inferred on the basis of the global frame.

As regards the text level, there are different sources the hearer can draw upon for the interpretation of inter-utterance relations.

First there is an explicit device which is systematically used to mark main structure utterances. The temporal anaphor dann then can be found consistently in utterance initial position, reflecting the structuring function of the temporal linearisation principle.

They have to be infered on the basis of the semantics of the lexical items used and general and specific knowledge about the situation presented in the text.

Bringing together what we have found in the two narratives the following conclusions can be drawn. Both speakers follow basically the same strategy.

They present their narrative strictly within the frame of the global structure established by the quaestio.

Events are organised in chronological order and are marked as temporally bounded, specific events by means of lexical forms e. On this basis, the interlocutor is able to reconstruct a story line, no matter how detailled the information about the single events actually is.

In text 1 very little information is in fact presented in terms of event units, and still 29 the hearer gets enough material to develop a picture of a rather dramatic episode in the live of the speaker.

What becomes clear from the two texts is, that the L2-speaker who has very limited linguistic competence relies on her pragmatic knowledge about how to organise a narrative.

And it is this knowledge which lies behind the choice of explicitly presented versus implicitly attached content material.

We will now see whether a different text type allows for the same strategy and thereby the same communicative success. Stutterheim , v.

The two texts chosen for illustration belong to the type description of activities. They both describe working conditions.

It is asked for the specification of activities which have to be understood as habitual events. The presentation of a sequence of activities will preferably follow a temporal linearisation principle, which is, however, not necessarily required.

The speaker might, for instance, choose an overall organisation which follows a spatial criterion in that he specifies activities at different places.

The distinction between main and side structure is also less clearcut than in narratives. Main structures can encompass different predicate types activities and states , only specific referential anchoring can be taken as an indicator for side structure utterances.

Compared to the text type narrative descriptive texts are less constrained, in other words, the production of a descriptive text calls for more structuring work on the side of the speaker.

We will now see, whether this difference is reflected in the L2 data. It follows the passage discussed above text 2.

In the following description she fills this frame with information about her daily routines at the hospital.

These parts of the information structure do not have to be made explicit, they will be taken to hold as long as the speaker does not explicitly say otherwise.

Let us now see how the speaker operates within these constraints. The description involves different levels of granularity. At the top level there is the interaction between the nurse and the informant refered to repeatedly in the course of the text , , 25, The level below is constituted by the activities the informant has to carry out according to the nurse's directions , A third level can be distinguished at which detailled information about the specific activities is provided 23, As the survey already shows, the speaker does not follow a consistent principle in organising the global structure.

Rather, the text consists of smaller segments, some of which are presented repeatedly. This phenomenon points to the fact that the description of the working situation is a difficult task for the speaker, which she tries to solve by repeating central information.

When we now look at the relation between explicit and implicit parts of the information structure we get the following picture.

Temporal and spatial location as well as the modal value are taken as shared knowledge and are not refered to throughout the whole text.

Still, the difference between referentielly more explicit or less explicit forms is used to provide structural information.

Those parts of the information structure which form something like the backbone of the description level 1 and 2, see above are presented by complex constructions 05, 10, 11, 19, 22, They contain a subject and a predicate; more importantly, they are linked by explicit devices.

The speaker uses the anaphoric form dann then and the idiosyncratic focussing particle das is this is. Here it is important to note that the adverb "then" has no temporal function.

It does not serve the function of establishing a temporal shift-in-time-relation, rather it links the propositional content in an additive fashion.

This interpretation results from the globally valid constraints introduced by the QUAESTIO and it is only on this basis that we can explain the difference in interpretation between narrative and descriptive texts with respect to the same linguistic devices.

Coming back to the relation between explicit and implicit parts of the information structure, we find that information which can be located at a level of higher granularity is presented in formally reduced utterances.

Those passages in the text which serve the function to specify the activities carried out by the speaker e. For these utterances, an interpretation can only be given on the basis of the scaffolding function of the frame parameters.

And still, some of the utterances cannot be interpreted at all. Since there is no consistent ordering principle which allows for the sequential integration of the information 32 given into an overall meaning structure, there are utterances for which the relational embedding remains unclear.

Let us conclude the analysis of the first descriptive text by a summary of the major points. Just as in the case of the narrative, the speaker uses the scaffolding strength of the quaestio constraints extensively.

Topic elements remain implicit, on this basis the speaker draws upon a strategy which uses the relation between complex and reduced forms to signal structural properties of the underlying information.

There is no question, that the descriptive text is more difficult to understand than the narrative, some passages remain totally unclear.

This seems to be due to the fact, that the structuring potential of the quaestio is weaker in the case of descriptions.

Therefore the L2 speaker has less to lean on, he would have to be more explicit especially about inter-propositional relations and this is something his language competence does not allow for.

Still, his level of language command is very basic. Privacy Policy Cookie Notice Terms and Conditions WorldCat is the world's largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online.

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